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Foreign units in the French Army under the Consulate and Empire, International Political Economy by Maswo S. Taylor Stranger in the nest: do parents really shape their child's personality, intelligence, or character? The uppermost layer, the euthynteria , partially protrudes above the ground level. Its surface is carefully smoothed and levelled. It supports a further foundation of three steps, the crepidoma. The uppermost level of the crepidoma provides the surface on which the columns and walls are placed; it is called stylobate.

Placed on the stylobate are the vertical column shafts, tapering towards the top. They are normally made of several separately cut column drums. Depending on the architectural order, a different number of flutings are cut into the column shaft: Doric columns have 18 to 20 flutings, Ionic and Corinthian ones normally have Early Ionic columns had up to 48 flutings. While Doric columns stand directly on the stylobate, Ionic and Corinthian ones possess a base, sometimes additionally placed atop a plinth.

In Doric columns , the top is formed by a concavely curved neck, the hypotrachelion , and the capital , in Ionic columns, the capital sits directly on the shaft. In the Doric order, the capital consists of a circular torus bulge, originally very flat, the so-called echinus , and a square slab, the abacus. The echinus of Ionic columns is decorated with an egg-and-dart band followed by a sculpted pillow forming two volutes , supporting a thin abacus. The eponymous Corinthian capital of the Corinthian order is crowned by rings of stylised acanthus leaves, forming tendrils and volutes that reach to the corners of the abacus.

The capitals support the entablature. In the Doric order, the entablature always consists of two parts, the architrave and the Doric frieze or triglyph frieze. There, the architrave was directly followed by the dentil.

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The frieze was originally placed in front of the roof beams, which were externally visible only in the earlier temples of Asia Minor. The Doric frieze was structured by triglyphs. These were placed above the axis of each column, and above the centre of each intercolumniation. The spaces between the triglyphs contained metopes , sometimes painted or decorated with relief sculpture. In the Ionic or Corinthian orders, the frieze possesses no triglyphs and is simply left flat, sometimes decorated with paintings or reliefs. With the introduction of stone architecture, the protection of the porticos and the support of the roof construction was moved upwards to the level of the geison , depriving the frieze of its structural function and turning it into an entirely decorative feature.

Frequently, the cella is also decorated with architrave and frieze, especially at the front of the pronaos. Above the frieze, or an intermediate member, e. It consists of the geison on the sloped sides or pediments of the narrow walls a sloped geison , and the sima. On the long side, the sima, often elaborately decorated, was equipped with water spouts, often in the shape of lions' heads.

The pedimental triangle or tympanon on the narrow sides of the temple was created by the Doric introduction of the gabled roof , earlier temples often had hipped roofs. The tympanon was usually richly decorated with sculptures of mythical scenes or battles.

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The corners and ridges of the roof were decorated with acroteria , originally geometric, later floral or figural decorations. As far as topographically possible, the temples were freestanding and designed to be viewed from all sides. They were not normally designed with consideration for their surroundings, but formed autonomous structures.

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This is a major difference from Roman temples which were often designed as part of a planned urban area or square and had a strong emphasis on being viewed frontally. The foundations of Greek temples could reach dimensions of up to by 55 m, i. Columns could reach a height of 20 m. To design such large architectural bodies harmoniously, a number of basic aesthetic principles were developed and tested already on the smaller temples. This initial measurement was the basis for all the units that determined the shape of the temple. Important factors include the lower diameter of the columns and the width of their plinths.

The distance between the column axes intercolumniation or bay could also be used as a basic unit. These measurements were in set proportions to other elements of design, such as column height and column distance.

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In conjunction with the number of columns per side, they also determined the dimensions of stylobate and peristasis , as well as of the naos proper. The rules regarding vertical proportions, especially in the Doric order, also allow for a deduction of the basic design options for the entablature from the same principles. Another determining design feature was the relationship linking naos and peristasis. In the original temples, this would have been subject entirely to practical necessities, and always based on axial links between cella walls and columns, but the introduction of stone architecture broke that connection.

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Nevertheless, it did survive throughout Ionic architecture. In Doric temples, however, the wooden roof construction, originally placed behind the frieze, now started at a higher level, behind the geison. This ended the structural link between frieze and roof; the structural elements of the latter could now be placed independent of axial relationships. As a result, the cella walls lost their fixed connection with the columns for a long time and could be freely placed within the peristasis.

Only after a long phase of developments did the architects choose the alignment of the outer wall face with the adjacent column axis as the obligatory principle for Doric temples. Doric temples in Greater Greece rarely follow this system. The basic proportions of the building were determined by the numeric relationship of columns on the front and back to those on the sides.

As a result, numerous temples of the Classical period in Greece c. According to this proportion, Vitruvius 3, 3, 1 ff distinguished between five different design concepts and temple types:. The determination and discussion of these basic principles went back to Hermogenes , whom Vitruvius credits with the invention of the eustylos. To loosen up the mathematical strictness and to counteract distortions of human visual perception, a slight curvature of the whole building, hardly visible with the naked eye, was introduced.

The ancient architects had realised that long horizontal lines tend to make the optical impression of sagging towards their centre. This avoidance of mathematically straight lines also included the columns, which did not taper in a linear fashion, but were refined by a pronounced "swelling" entasis of the shaft. Additionally, columns were placed with a slight inclination towards the centre of the building.

The most consistent use of these principles is seen in the Classical Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis.