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Modifications made over multiple iterations of a course e. One such study could compare learning outcomes between courses intentionally designed to foster teaching presence, in particular, coupled with faculty trained in the CoI framework, against the same courses without the intentional design and trained faculty. Higher education institutions will continue to face difficulties developing long-term online education strategies unless there is a growing body of evidence for a more predictable way of anticipating trends in both technology and the needs of online students.

Conclusion This literature review examines the role of instructor presence in online learning. A broad range of perspectives is covered on the three presences found in the Community of Inquiry model introduced by Garrison et al. Teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence are considered in literature not connected to CoI, which leads me to believe that Garrison et al. Personal experiences in my graduate studies reflect positive learning perceptions and outcomes as a result of instructor presence.

The effects of strong instructor presence, for me personally, have included motivation, engagement, satisfaction with the courses and instructors, and a heightened sense of learning. The combination of this review and my own personal experience has deepened my conviction for the need for faculty development focused on online instructor presence.

It seems that if faculty are still not convinced of online learning as a legitimate delivery method, convincing them that they need to apply effort towards creating presence may be a dim proposition. For instance, Preisman conducted a study of teaching presence within her own courses. While her findings did not demonstrate a significant value in putting forth the effort, Preisman did conclude that being present was needed as opposed to having presence More faculty members are being asked to add online courses to their teaching load.

Although such assignments often are initially viewed with deep skepticism by faculty who have themselves been educated in an exclusively face-to-face format, faculty views evolve once it becomes clear that quality content and quality courses can be delivered online p. One overwhelming variable, however, is whether higher education instructors will truly understand that there is a difference between teaching online versus the traditional classroom, and perhaps most importantly, whether they have received instruction in how to teach at all.

Recognizing that, I have come to appreciate that helping faculty develop into being online instructors is critical to delivering quality, successful online programs. Institutions can learn about their own instructors by consistently including questions with CoI elements in end-of-term surveys to determine levels of teaching, social, and cognitive presences in their online courses.

In order for faculty development to be successful, institutions must support and value the efforts. When instructors experience similar frustrations and accomplishments as students, they can empathize with the students and understand how online teaching requires enhanced skills. Burkle and Cleveland-Innes agree that these students think and process material differently than any other generation.

The Computer Centre. Adults Learning

I believe it will be critical for higher education faculty to be trained in not only online teaching methods to promote presence, but also techniques to reach the increasingly tech-centric student population that is becoming the norm. Akyol, Z. A response to the review of the community of inquiry framework.

Journal of Distance Education Online , 23 2 , The development of a community of inquiry over time in an online course: Understanding the progression and integration of social, cognitive and teaching presence. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 12 , 3. Allen, I. Grade level: Tracking online education in the United States. Online Learning Consortium.

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Anderson, T. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5 2. Berge, Z. Virtual schools: What every education leader should know.

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Lauderdale, FL. Burkle, M. Chen, P. Learning at a distance: Engaged or not?

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Journal of Education 4 3. Chickering, A. Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Dewey, J.

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My pedagogic creed. Thornton Eds. The Curriculum Studies Reader.

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New York, NY: Routledge. Dzubinski, L. Teaching presence: Co-creating a multi-national online learning community in an asynchronous classroom. Ekmekci, O.

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  5. Being there: Establishing instructor presence in an online learning environment. Higher Education Studies 3 1 , Garrison, D. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11 1 , Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13 1—2 , Exploring causal relationships among teaching, cognitive and social presence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework.

    The Internet and Higher Education, 13 1 , Ice, P. International Association for K Online Learning. National standards for quality online teaching. Irwin, C. Socialization in the online classroom. E-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology, 9 1. Kilgore, W. The human element MOOC. Wright Ed. Lamb, A.

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    Lorenzo, G. Five pillars of quality online education. The Sloan consortium report to the nation, Marmon, M. The value of social presence in developing student satisfaction and learning outcomes in online learning environments. Ed , Student-teacher interaction in online learning environments. McDonald, J. Journal for Asynchronous Learning Networks, 6 2 , McGlynn, A. Teaching millennials, our newest cultural cohort. Moore, M. Three types of interaction. Theory of transactional distance. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education 1, Nafukho, F. Strengthening student engagement: What do students want in online courses? European Journal of Training and Development 38 9 , Nagel, L. Supersizing e-learning: What a CoI survey reveals about teaching presence in a large online class. National Survey for Student Engagement, Bringing the institutions into focus: Annual results Noel-Levitz Coralville, IA: Noel-Levitz. Pacansky-Brock, M. Humanizing your online class. Learning out loud: Increasing voluntary voice comments in online classes.

    Lowenthal, C. Richardson Eds. Palloff, R. The excellent online instructor: Strategies for professional development. Picciano, A.