The ways in which such competences can be developed start from making students aware of the fact that they have much to learn in this field, i. Another important aspect is for the student to find out whether what they believe they said was understood that way by others. An aim of these activities is to develop awareness and confidence in their interpersonal know-how in the students. All the competences developed are put into play in practice when the students actually enter the workplace in a training setting.
- Hermann Göring - Fighter Ace: The World War I Career of Germanys Most Infamous Airman.
- Unions at the Crossroads: Strategic Membership, Financial, and Political Perspectives.
Students in this case will observe role models in action and analyse what they see and hear; students also keep a personal diary or log of their experiences and observations. Results can be assessed fairly effectively in the context of the activities mentioned. Some teachers consulted by the Education group were sceptical about whether these skills could really be taught and learned formally or accurately assessed. However, most teacher education programmes make use of competence-based assessment procedures to assess the classroom practice elements of courses.
These include formal assessment of the students' competence in interpersonal areas such as questioning, classroom management, teacher-pupil relations, and teamwork with colleagues and so on. The strategies outlined certainly have the merit of creating an environment in which interpersonal skills can be explicitly considered and their development targeted.
It is stated that students are aware of whether they have been successful in acquiring the appropriate interpersonal skills when they feel confident in groups and in their practice teaching. This feeling of confidence may be of varying value in different countries as an indication of successful achievement. The perception and feedback of others, particularly learners, would seem to be more significant. The importance and range of communication skills for Nurses is made explicit in programme outlines and assessment procedures. Overall, on the basis of the reports available, it appears that interpersonal skills may not be taken sufficiently into consideration by higher education academics, with the exception of those in whose subject area those competences or skills are thought to be fundamental.
This is not surprising, considering that interpersonal skills are perhaps exactly the kind of competence that traditional university education ignored and which nonetheless are of great importance in the educational process. This may be the case in wholly mono-cultural contexts, but how many of those are there in 21 st century Europe , or, indeed, 21st century anywhere? It is not proposed here that all subject areas imitate the Education, Nursing and Business Studies SAGs in the emphasis given to this group of skills and competences, nor that the same teaching and learning strategies be used.
However, students in all subject areas would benefit if programmes were to address more explicit, analytical and practical attention to this group of competences because there is no doubt that whatever employment a graduate will find, these skills will be of use to them. Hence a useful direction of endeavour to educate the educators could be to develop awareness, both in our capacity as teachers and as learners, of this group of skills.
The ability to work autonomously is prized in all subject areas. Naturally in real life - post graduation -- the ability to organise available time, choose priorities, work to deadlines and deliver what has been agreed on, is essential for personal and professional life and citizenship in general. At present, the main methods reported of developing this competence in students are, in the initial stages of higher education, to ask the students to use methods other than lectures e.
Some recommendations are made not to harass students with many small deadlines, or to give constant reminders of deadlines, letting the students learn to organise their time by having to do it. The final paper or dissertation is seen as a particularly useful means of ascertaining whether the student has learned to use time and organise complex tasks effectively.
India in the Knowledge Economy: An Electronic Paradigm
Experience shows that national traditions are very different in the attitudes and practices with regard to student autonomy. In some countries, particularly where students are more mature when they start their studies, they are considered to be adults from the very beginning, attendance is not mandatory and deadlines are quite flexible, going to the point of giving students the opportunity of staking all on a final exam — for a course, for a year, or even for an entire course of study. The other extreme is based on a closely structured course organisation in which students are given specific study tasks which are checked during the semester writing papers, or reading and studying certain material on which the student is tested according to a strict time schedule, often coordinated with other time schedules in the department or Faculty to avoid overlap.
In this case the basic strategy is to insist on the student having accomplished the task on time, in a context perhaps reminiscent of school organisation, but perhaps without the leeway permitted in school. It is interesting to see, in fact, that for some the ability to work autonomously can be developed by a sink or swim strategy, whereas for others, it can be accomplished by enforcing and insisting on the respect of a framework of task organisation decided by the teacher.
As part of formal programmes of study in most subject disciplines students are required to be appropriately skilful in aspects of computing and information technology. Within programmes of study in different subject disciplines this competence may be seen as one or more of. Under each of these the content, emphasis and weight within the curriculum will vary considerably with the subject discipline. At one extreme, it may be assumed that students have the necessary competence on entry to the programme or that they will informally acquire necessary competences as they progress through their studies.
This is likely to be the case where computer skills are seen only as a relatively elementary skill, both in terms of supporting study and enhancing future employability. Not all SAGs focussed on this competence in the consultation, even though their subject is one were computer applications are very widely used, e. Those SAGs which did address this competence emphasised that the objective is that the student feel confident to approach and use a computer for any type of activity required by the subject curriculum. Detailed responses reported the need for students to be able to create and store information on any media, e-mail, search on the web, and specifically have experience in data logging of experimental apparatus to a computer and processing of the resulting data, use subject specific software Chemistry.
Word processing or special software to present in words or graphics plotting or calculate, evaluate and access information wherever it is available Physics. Students are also increasingly asked to become familiar with learning spaces to make use of new forms of e-learning via facilities such as the use of communications networks and new educational technologies.source site
India in the Knowledge Economy: An Electronic Paradigm | Asian Journal of Distance Education
Modern e-learning management systems usually use special facilities such as virtual learning environments e. WebCT, Blackboard , newsrooms, direct web-links Education. The competence is also a requirement for writing papers such as theses, dissertations in an adequate format, fulfilling all academic standards in terms as footnotes, literature and source review History. Students receive both, formal lectures and the opportunity to apply their knowledge in computer laboratories to develop their computer competences.
Some SAGs report the initial provision of free access sessions after which specifically subject oriented instruction is given. Formal lessons are sometimes scheduled much later in the programme 2nd or 3rd year , when specific software is being introduced. However, most of the time, basic courses are provided at the beginning of programmes by the institutions, sometimes in the format of an intensive short programme. Web evaluation is also considered an important way of developing computing skills in a wider sense.
Typically such teaching and learning sessions would start with a class-based task using an on-line site and generate student criteria for evaluation which are discussed and categorised. Some lecturers then steer students towards finding other evaluation sites as part of web search skills, others give out lecturer-selected criteria. These evaluation criteria will be tested by referring to identified web-sites. According to the Education group 2 , forms of teaching and learning to develop the computer competences of students include:.
Assessment of developing computer skills is based on requiring students to demonstrate evidence of the competence e. In Education all activities for early development of ICT skills focus on skills development rather than knowledge or awareness. These include that students. Where skills are assessed, students are informed about their achievements by grades and oral feed-back. Reference is made to all tasks students had to perform, covering demonstrations in supervised computer laboratory sessions, assigned computer based tasks, practical laboratory reports on experiments and even the final year project report e.
Definition of E-learning: Content Authoring
Bachelor thesis. When describing this competence SAGs use the following verbs: to feel confident in approaching, to create, to store, to make familiar with, to search, to draw, to use, to match, to enter, to produce, to save, to alter, to cut and paste, to format, to link, to conduct, to assist, to illustrate, to evaluate, to generate, to communicate, to browse, to interact, etc. One group for whom computer use may be problematic are mature students entering university for the first time.
Schools nowadays teach computer skills, and both soft- and hardware have changed out of all recognition in the past 10 years. Mature students may not, however, be computer literate, and may not feel confident enough to ask for help. All SAGs agreed about the importance of research skills especially, but not only, for the second cycle. However some differences emerged in the meanings attached to this in the various disciplines. While Education and History emphasise knowledge of different research methods, Physics focuses on knowledge of the techniques used in a particular research field and Chemistry also refers to designing specific projects and evaluating their results.
No clear distinction was stated between learning how to do research with the help of a teacher and learning how to do research through the activities related to a personal research project; yet in scrutinizing programme descriptions collected, it was quite clear in Education and Nursing, at least, that specific units addressed the development of research knowledge and skills, especially in the second cycle.
This is in addition to the integrated evidence based teaching that Educationists and Nursing specialists espouse. Since research competence is developed by following these two parallel paths, in addition to continual exposure to research through reading research reports as part of programme requirements , it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear line between the teacher's role and the learners activities: The lecturer's contribution would mainly consist in presenting methodological approaches, creating an awareness of the research context, i. There is agreement on two main points: first, assessment is based both on achievement during the research process - such as quality of written work submitted, participation in group activities - and on the quality of the final product - such as originality, the ability to gather documentary evidence in support of the argument, clarity and independence of thought, concern for coherence and objectivity, clarity of presentation; second, regular feedback is provided both on process and product from academic supervisors and often from peers as well.
The comparison of approaches to learning, teaching and assessment from the viewpoint of subject areas on a European wide scale is a new step forward in making higher education transparent. This brief overview suggests that although complex, the task is entirely feasible, given good will and good listening competences. Bologna introduced the concept of a three cycle structure for higher education in Europe , a challenge which is being confronted across the continent.
The work of Tuning is available to assist those who wish to adopt such an approach to curriculum design, teaching, learning and assessment in higher education. This paper is written with the intention of stimulating further discussion about the issues highlighted and the findings of this consultation with representatives of university departments in 25 different countries 4.
It is evident that as programmes are designed in view of certain outcomes formulated in terms of competences, teaching and learning activities must be designed in such a way as to achieve those outcomes. And assessment practices must be appropriate for ascertaining whether or not the desired result has been obtained. It is hoped that this discussion can serve as a sounding board for further evaluation in subject area groups, inside as well as outside the context of the Tuning project.