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The analyst must in a sense come to understand the perverse transferencecountertransference "after the fact," i. H o w e v e r , these interpretations seemed mechanical to me. As Ms. Since it requires a considerable span of time to describe the experience of a reverie, the rhythm of the analysis is not well represented in my efforts at describing it in a linear fashion.

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The thoughts, feelings, and sensations involved in a reverie may occupy only a few moments. Consequently, it is inaccurate to think ofthe analyst's use of his reveries as reflecting a detached, self-absorbed, inattentive psychological state. On the contrary, the analyst's attentiveness to his own affective state as generated in the context of the analytic intersubjectivity contributes to a feeling of intense emotional immediacy and a sense of the analyst's resonance with the patient's unconscious experience in the present moment. As discussed above, the transference-countertransference is understood as an unconscious intersubjective construction experienced separately and individually by analyst and analysand.

I do not conceive of transference and countertransference as separable psychological entities that arise independently of, or in response to one another, but as aspects of a single intersubjective totality Loewald , Ogden a, d. The Perverse Subject of Analysis 83 Ms.

T h e transference implications of these recognitions were explored including the confusion about whose sexual e x c i t e m e n t w a s w h o s e i n t h e d r e a m a s well as i n t h e transference-counter transference events that had o c c u r r e d i n t h e analysis. Discussion Ms. Silence could n o w be tolerated rather t h a n b e i n g immediately transformed into t h e "noise" of t h e e r o t i z e d , m a g n e t i c storytelling. For example, in t h e course o f Ms.

The Perverse Subject of Analysis 7. Privacy, Analytic R e v e r i e , a n d T e c h n i q u e I hold this to be the highest task of two people: that each should stand guard over the solitude ofthe other. As will b e discussed, I believe that t h e creation of a n analytic process d e p e n d s u p o n t h e capacity of analyst a n d analysand to e n g a g e in a dialectical interplay of states of "reverie" Bion, a t h a t a r e at t h e s a m e t i m e private a n d unconsciously communicative.

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My use of analytic technique in the service of generating an analytic process for example, use of reverie in relation to my understanding of my experience of the transference-countertransference and my use of this understanding in the interpretation of the leading transference-countertransference anxiety does not change in response to the number of times per week that I am seeing a patient.

For example, I rely no more on suggestion, exhortation, reassurance, and the like in work with patients being seen once or twice per week than I do with patients being seen four, five, or six times per week. In the course o f t h e extended consultation, I asked D r.

O n e elem e n t in this discussion involved Dr. This view of the role of the analysand overlaps brief comments made by Altman and Gill personal communication reported by Epstein, concerning their own versions of the fundamental rule. Altman suggests speaking to the patient in a way that conveys to the analysand that the analysand is "entitled to say anything" p.

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Gill personal communication reported by Epstein suggests saying to the analysand, 'You may say whatever you wish p. These two statements overlap with my own thinking, although they place far less emphasis than I do on the centrality of the role of privacy in the analytic experience. Isakower and Lewin were pioneers in the exploration of the analyst's use of his own consciousness as an "analytic instrument" Isakower , particularly in relation to the use of this function for purposes of understanding uie unconscious meanings of the patient's dreams and other sleep-related phenomena.

F r o m t h e i n i t i a l a n a lytic meeting onward, psychological space the analysand's personal including his " d r e a m space" a n d t h e analytic space b e c o m e increasingly converg e n t a n d difficult t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e. Grotstein and Sandler have discussed the interplay of multiple unconscious intrapsychic aspects ofthe personality system in the process of dreaming a dream and understanding it.

However, they do not address the intersubjective dimension of dreaming that is the focus of the current discussion. Blechner has discussed the analyst's use of the patient's dreams for purposes of understanding his own unconscious anxieties which understandings are then used to facilitate understanding ofthe transference.

Reverie and Interpretation O g d e n 1 9 9 2 b. Just as the dreams ofthe analysand are generated in the context ofthe analytic dream space, the analyst's dreams should similarly be treated as sources of analytic meaning in relation to the leading transference-countertransference anxiety at a given juncture of an analysis Peltz , Whitman et al. I have found that this is of particular importance when the analyst's dream is recalled during the course of an analytic hour whether or not the patient is represented in the manifest content of the dream.

It is beyond the scope of this discussion to explore and clinically illustrate the analyst's use of his own dreams in the analysis of the transference-countertransference. It is important to bear in mind the atemporal nature of dreams and dream associations Freud ,,,b. If the analyst is focused on the associational events following the patient's telling of the dream, he may lose sight of the way in which the patient may have already associated to the dream, for example, in the form ofthe patient's facial expression on seeing the analyst in the waiting room or in the form of physical sensations or bodily movements occurring during the telling ofthe dream Boyer It is the very atmosphere of the mind; and when the mind is imaginative.

T h e t h o u g h t s a n d feelings constituting reverie a r e rarely discussed with o u r colleagues. D e s p i t e t h e fact t h a t t h e r e s e e m e d to b e s o m e t h i n g a b o u t the transference displacement onto the neighbor's dog that I might have interpreted, I decided n o t to attempt such an intervention. I had learned from my experience w i t h Ms. These thoughts were quite unobtrusive a n d occupied o n l y a few s e c o n d s o f time.

I t was after this affective shift o c c u r r e d t h a t r e v e r i e o f a m o r e verbally symbolic less exclusively s o m a t i c Reverie and Interpretation sort b e g a n to b e elaborated. I n t h e course of t h e reverie of the conversation w i t h J. The unconscious movement brought about by the reverie experience might be thought of as the outcome of the unconscious "understanding work" Sandler that is an integral part of dreaming and reverie. Dreaming and reverie always involve an unconscious internal discourse between "the dreamer who dreams the dream and the dreamer who understands the dream" Grotstein If there were no such unconscious discourse if there were no unconscious "understanding work" standing in relation to the unconscious "dream work" , we would have to conclude that only the dreams or reveries that we remember have psychological value and contribute to psychological growth.

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This is a view to which few analysts would subscribe. T h e e m o t i o n a l c h a n g e that I experienced in relation to my internal Reverie and Interpretation object relationship with J. T h e internal object relationship with J. My efforts t o talk w i t h Ms. J a m e s , The Portrait of a Lady, , p. I am reminded of Bion's comment to his analysand, James Grotstein, after Grotstein responded to one of Bion's interpretations by saying, "I understand.

If you must, superstand, circumstand, parastand, but please try not to understand" Grotstein , personal communication. The analyst's creation of "metaphorical statements" constituting interpretations must not be an obtrusive event designed to demonstrate the analyst's cleverness with words. Leavis , in his discussion of Milton, usefully distinguishes between a display of a "feeling for words" and the capacity to create "feeling through words" p.

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Pritchard's term "ear training" is derived from language used by Robert Frost in a letter: "The ear does it. The ear is the only true writer and the only true reader.

I have known people who could read without hearing the sounds and they were the fastest readers. Eye readers we call them. They can get the meaning by glances. But they are bad readers because they miss the best part of what a good writer puts into his words" Frost a, p. I believe that transference as total situation is perhaps more accurately conceived of as "transference-countertransference as total situation.

Eliot's views on poetry held enormous sway in literary circles and in academia during the period of Frost's maturity as a poet and for a decade or so afterwards. The following passage from Eliot's essay, "The Metaphysical Poets," had a great deal to do with what was in fashion for many decades:" The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning" p. Iambic pentameter is a poetic cadence consisting of five "feet" metrical units per line with each foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable.

Frost often remarked that in English unlike in French, Russian, or any other language "there are virtually but two [meters], strict iambic and loose iambic" p. I am indebted to Alice Jones, a poet who has taught me something about meter and a great deal about a passion for poetry. The Dream in Psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press. Discussion of Epstein A poem is a walk. Epoch Balint, M.

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The Basic Fault. London: Tavistock. Baranger, M. The mind of the analyst: from listening to interpretation. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis Bion, W. Attacks on linking. Learning from Experience.