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Hilbert J. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Since then, the many contributions that have been made to our knowledge of the coronary circulation can be arbitrarily divided into three phases based on advances in technical methods.
The early phase of research into the coronary circulation, done with great difficulty with crude methods, may be regarded as ending in the s, and it included major discoveries made by such well known investigators as Georg von Anrep, Ernest Starling, Carl Wiggers, and Louis Katz, who formulated much of our basic understanding of the field. After , the field of coronary physiology entered a new phase when instruments for high fidelity registration of coronary flow and pressure became available. Advanced search Search history. Browse titles authors subjects uniform titles series callnumbers dewey numbers starting from optional.
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Frontiers | A One-Dimensional Hemodynamic Model of the Coronary Arterial Tree | Physiology
In the Library Request this item to view in the Library's reading rooms using your library card. Details Collect From YY Order a copy Copyright or permission restrictions may apply. We will contact you if necessary. Although a number of other multiscale simulations of coronary flow have been carried out Mantero et al. The pattern of WI in coronary arteries is quite different from the systemic circulation due to myocardial contraction, and the net WI of the LCX agrees well with experimental data, as shown in Figure 4E. The simulated waveforms demonstrate that the flow velocity and WI patterns differ between the left and right coronary vessels.
The shapes of the flow, pressure and wave intensity curves in the left coronary vessels e. The greatest flow occurs during diastole. This is because there are fewer structural branches and lower terminal pressure differences Hadjiloizou et al. We also model some pathological cases and show that a higher flow is always associated with an increase in the three forward wavefronts in systole. Our results also confirm that increased stiffness of the coronary arteries will increase the FDW during diastole, consistent with observations by Davies et al.
The stiffened arteries can create an energy surge into coronary vessels. Hence, the FDW might be a good indicator for diagnosis of diseased coronary arteries. The augmentation of pressure can be seen in rarefaction even though there is no obvious change in the flow. This abnormally high pressure is transmitted into the micro-vascular networks, which can lead to pressure imbalance and vessel destruction Feihl et al. Although the mechanism of rarefaction-induced hypertension is complex Feihl et al.
Finally, we study the effects of change in geometry in our model. This suggests that the FDW can be a good indicator of size change. However, we should also treat it with caution, as small errors in geometry measurements may induce large errors in the FDW. The other quantities, however, are less sensitive to size perturbations.
We now mention the limitations of our approach. The 1D model is based on a simplified tapered geometry for a 3D in vivo coronary tree. The complicated biophysical interaction between the ventricle and coronary flow is modeled using a dynamic space-dependent feedback pressure on the large vessels. In addition, we have not considered dynamic feedback pressure within the structured-tree model, which will change the impedance of the terminal vessels. Moreover, the venous pressure and flow were neglected in our model.
In summary, a 1D model based on the CT scans of coronary circulation is developed. The model employs a structured-tree model for the coronary vascular beds and includes combined feedback pressure resulting from contraction of the heart wall as an additional term in the boundary condition at the linking terminal arteries to the vascular beds. Our model agrees well with previous published studies and data. In addition, we use WI analysis to quantify flow and pressure waves in the coronary arteries. Pathological conditions such as stiffened coronary arteries and vascular rarefaction, as well as changes in geometry and the ventricular-pressure feedback ratio, are also studied.
The dataset for this manuscript is not publicly available because it is limited to clinical and research use in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to ZD.
Coronary Blood Flow : Mechanics, Distribution, and Control
ZD conceptualized and designed the study. The need for a structured-tree model for the coronary vasculature was identified by XL and NH. XY helped with measuring the clinical experiment and collecting data. XL and NH helped with the analysis and interpretation of the data, critically revising the manuscript, and adding important intellectual content. All authors gave approval for the final version of this manuscript to be published and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Alastruey, J. Lumped parameter outflow models for 1-D blood flow simulations: effect on pulse waves and parameter estimation. Google Scholar. Algranati, D. Mechanisms of myocardium-coronary vessel interaction. Heart Circ.
Coronary Blood Flow
Avanzolini, G. CADCS simulation of the closed-loop cardiovascular system. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Chen, W. Study of cardiovascular function using a coupled left ventricle and systemic circulation model. Chilian, W. Phasic coronary blood flow velocity in intramural and epicardial coronary arteries. Chiribiri, A.
Original Research ARTICLE
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Z Biol Hadjiloizou, N. Differences in cardiac microcirculatory wave patterns between the proximal left mainstem and proximal right coronary artery. Hall, J. Hoffman, J. Pressure-flow relations in coronary circulation. Huo, Y.
Karimi, A. A finite element investigation on plaque vulnerability in realistic healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries. Part H J. Kim, H.
Developing computational methods for three-dimensional finite element simulations of coronary blood flow. Finite Elem. Design 46, — Kyriacou, A. Improvement in coronary blood flow velocity with acute biventricular pacing is predominantly due to an increase in a diastolic backward-travelling decompression suction wave.