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Tibetans inside Tibet, for many reasons, rarely speak of these matters, in public or in private, and few older Tibetans have left their country since the Cultural Revolution a few thousand, some of whom had been in prison since or This largely explains our meagre acquaintance with the events of in the Lhasa region or, for that matter, in the whole of Tibet. We may estimate the vast memory work still to be accomplished in the field of Tibetan contemporary history by recalling that not a single Western historical study has yet been devoted to the Cultural Revolution in Tibet: the first book on this subject is expected next.

Seventy percent of the population fell into a bad category from the revolutionary point of view, signalling the failure of Chinese policy in Tibet after 15 years of frenzied reforms ch.

It is their fate that is here described. But the most important is what follows. They worked all hours, to the point of exhaustion and beyond, building roads, making bricks, toiling in the hydroelectric power stations for example, the Nangchen plant, where the author was sent and labouring in the fields.

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Tibet has hardly any trees, so bushes were gathered in widening circles. Then the roots were dug up, transforming the landscape into a huge expanse of grey, tortured earth. Hermitages on the mountain side were ransacked for the smallest pieces of wood p. The shortage of food in also led to the ravaging of wildlife: any living creatures were fit prey for the Chinese settlers and soldiers p.

As he travelled around he observed that the monasteries, already stripped of their furniture, were being used as warehouses, and that their occupants had disappeared. Later he learned that the monks and nuns had been forced into marriage with each other according to a lottery system p. Such frankness cost the Panchen Lama a term of 14 years in preventive custody.

Thus we have access to some absolutely riveting material on what happened in the Lhasa region. The picture there is hardly more cheering: in , many villagers from the valleys neighbouring Lhasa and Shigatse were flocking to Lhasa in flight from the povertystricken countryside. He was a perpetual outcast and could not live a normal existence. And then there were the evening work-sessions pp. Far from being forgotten, his being labelled as a class enemy became still worse for him once the Cultural Revolution began.

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Tibet Information Network, Hostile Elements , Tibet Information Network, Niewidzialne kajdany. Steven D. Rights and Democracy, Economic dimensions of autonomy and the Right to Development , The Sankrit term for Tulku is Nirmanakaya. It has been variedly translated into English as the manifested body, incarnation, reincarnation and rebirth.

Tulkus are considered principal standard-bearers of Tibetan Buddhist traditions and provide social and spiritual guidance for both ordained and laity. Thondup, In Tibetan Buddhism there are broadly three types of tulkus. Foremost are the emanation of the Buddhas.

ryorecbabest.tk The second are the manifestations of highly accomplished adepts and the third are the rebirths of virtuous teachers and spiritual masters. The Buddha manifestations or Tulkus in Sanskrit is referred to as Nirmanakaya, they appear as ordinary beings and serve in infinite forms through their enlightened attainments. The second type of tulku who are manifestations of highly accomplished adepts appear in forms through their highly realized wisdom.

The third type are the rebirths of virtuous and meritorious teachers who are in the process of fulfilling their own spiritual goals and at the same time serving others though the beneficial effects of their own virtuous deeds. In Tibet, most of the tulkus belong to the third category who are the rebirths of virtuous teachers and lamas Thondup, In Tibet, as Tibetans practice Mahayana Great Vehicle , they believe that buddhas and bodhisattvas continue to manifest in different forms to help other beings for liberation from samsara Gamble, As with the manifestations of the enlightened power of the buddhas, Tibetans have adopted the term and concept of tulku for the rebirth of Tibetan lamas who are considered virtuous and due to their spiritual attainment.

This revolves around the concept of Karma where deceased lamas who have accumulated virtuous karma will obtain rebirths that could help them continue with their tasks of helping others. This stems from a belief that the lamas who have led a virtuous life, accumulated merits becomes a sources of happiness and provide guidance to enlightenment among Tibetan Buddhists. Tibetan Buddhists also believe in the power of highly accomplished adepts to find the reborn manifestations of deceased lamas, because they trust in the power of highly realized wisdom-mind.

Tibetan Buddhists enjoy full trust in the tulku tradition because it is based on mahayana fundamentals, and they have witnessed and appreciated an abundance of benefit from the good merit of tulkus. To explain it in clear terms, tulkus are the earthly manifestation of buddhahood Kuijp, Imperial Tibet c. One of the most significant contributions during the reign of Songsten Gampo c. When he returned to Tibet … he devised the first Tibetan script and established the tradition of written Tibetan.

It became the root of all knowledge. The common written script of the Tibetan language enabled the Tibetan people to store the whole body of knowledge from Buddhist India. The script also enabled the Tibetans to store and leave for posterity non-Buddhist knowledge and sciences emanating from other cultural realms Samten, During the reign of Trisong Detsen or , a grand debate was held to decide on the importation of Buddhism to Tibet.

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The debate for the adoption of Chinese and Indian Buddhist tradition, the outcome of the debate would serve to gain imperial endorsement of to take firm root in Tibet Desal, Tibetans would continue to consult Indian masters and momentous translation projects under various patronages served as the basis for Tibetan Buddhism. The ministers who steered him to power set about cutting spending on Buddhist projects.

Early politics

This led to Lhalung Palgyi Dorje, the ninth abbot of Samye to assassinate the king by breaking his monastic vows in Schaik, This marks the beginning of the disintegration of Tibetan empire. Traditional historical accounts record that following the assassination of the anti-Buddhist monarch Lang Darma in , and the ensuing power vacuum persisted for a full four hundred years. Eventually Tibet witnessed germination of cultural life as Tibetan seekers and adventurers in great earnestness began to look outside Tibet for authoritative sources of Buddhist teachings. Tibetan seekers went to India in Nepal in the eleventh century in search of teachers, text and masters of esoteric practice.

This development is epitomized in the Western Tibet by the life and time of the great translator Rinchen Zangpo He was patronized by the monarchs of the Kingdom of Guge and went on to establish monasteries in Tibet and in what is now the Indian Himalayas in Ladakh and Spiti. This development received further impetus with the visit of an Indian scholar and adept Atisha who was invited to teach in It is difficult to assert and establish the origin of tulku system in Tibet.

However, traditional Tibetan sources suggest that tulku system began with Karma Phakshi He was the second hierarch of the Karma branch of the Kagyu School. Karma Phakshi is later recognized as the reincarnation of the Dusum Khenpa and that of Avalokitesvara Kuijp, By the lifetime of the third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje in the thirteenth century Tibet, the belief in reincarnation was well established in Tibet Gamble, The current Karmapa is the seventeenth reincarnation of Karmapas of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism.